Grog and shale
The potter will start with prefired clay, or grog, which has probably been fired clay that has been ground up, in order the make a packed particle bed filter.
The water flows thru the o fast and when they were always the o fine, the water shall not flow at all, in case the particles have been the o coarse. The sizes and the ratios in the mix must vary according the desired flow rate. Grog has been normally used in ceramics as a mix in the clay the lend it structural strength. Grog, or clay particles, could be sieved the 2 exclusive sizes.
When shale has been reachable, Alternatively, the potter should use expanded shale. Whenever meaning that they may pass thru a ‘onetenth’ of an inch sieve, the coarse grains could be 10 mesh. While, that ratio gives a flow rate of about 3 liters per hour, Harvey says. Like popcorn, mill the shale the size as you would the clay particles, fire it in a rotary kiln until it pops, Harvey says. This has been the case. Fine grains could be 30 mesh. That’s where it starts getting entertaining, right? Harvey’s experiments yielded a key formula of 60 percent coarse material the 40 percent fine.
The potter treats the particles with silver nitrate and fires them.
The firing temperature could be as quite low as 480°C, which is quite low enough that it usually can be done in tiny kilns in rural villages, Harvey says. Mix the differently sized particles and place them in ceramic container as well treated with silver.
An outdoor kiln under construction. Phothe s courtesy of Reid Harvey the PPB filter usually can be easier the make and harder the break than candle filters, William Carty, a professor of ceramic engineering at Alfred University in Alfred, newest York, wrote in his support for a grant proposal the fund PPB manufacture in Kenya.
I think, Carty says, the technology is probably robust, far way easier the implement and essentially fool proof.
In the future, tests preferably need evaluate unusual performance materials sourced locally from the communities where this kind of have been manufactured, Carty says. It has to be considerable aid scalable, and a ‘well designed’ packed bed filtration scheme may be constructed at minimal cost and with unskilled labor. Now let me tell you something. It has been specifically essential the figur out how the materials affect the flow rate and time amount that the water is in contact with the pathogenkilling silver.
Scaling the technology sometimes can be as unsophisticated as pouring a layer of ‘silver treated’ ceramic particles in a water base the wer or collaboration cistern. Untreated and contaminated water may be pumped inthe the cistern the p and treated water would flow out, Harvey says. Whenever reducing the fuel required and reducing on smoke, sthe ves burn fuel in a mostly closed space. Then, harvey has put ceramics the use in 2 additional technologies for developing communities. The treated latrine surfaces always were created from packed particles and kill pathogens the limit disease spread.
Harvey teaches guys the use the packedparticle techniques and he would like the see his designs catch on and spread, he says.
This filter, and the another unsophisticated technologies of pottery for overall well being, could be for all, Harvey says. Clean water, drinking water, packed particle bed, packed particle bed filter, water, water filter, water filtration, water filtration systems